Oxygen is essential to life. Without it, our cells cannot burn glucose and lipids, which enable them to function properly. Without oxygen, we die.

Oxygen is fuel for life. The constant uptake and delivery of oxygen within our body is necessary to sustain life whether at rest or under stress, in sickness and in health.

Normally, the body’s supply of oxygen sustains life by meeting the demand for oxygen at the cellular level. This availability of sufficient oxygen enables efficient and sustainable generation of energy to support the metabolic demands of the cells. Low oxygen content in the bloodstream, also known as hypoxemia, often leads to hypoxia, a condition in which a region of the body’s tissues is deprived of sufficient oxygen to produce the energy it needs to survive. This state can only be sustained for very brief periods of time, sometimes just minutes, before the body tissue experiences ischemia, damage, and, eventually, cellular death.

Our body’s ability to deliver sufficient oxygen is determined by several factors, including the amount of oxygen in the air we breathe, our cardiac output (i.e., how well the heart circulates the oxygen), our hemoglobin content (i.e., how many transporters there are to carry the oxygen), and the level of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, which can carry up to four oxygen molecules. A variety of medical interventions are available to augment or supplement these factors in the oxygen delivery process in order to increase mass oxygen delivery. However, while these existing strategies can be very effective in certain circumstances, they do not specifically focus on enhancing the diffusion process by which oxygen moves from a high concentration area in the bloodstream to a lower concentration area in hypoxic tissue. Accordingly, we believe there remains a significant unmet need in the treatment of hypoxia.

TSC was designed to enhance the level of organization among water molecules by increasing the amount of hydrogen bonding. This creates a less dense matrix of water molecules, reducing the resistance to oxygen diffusion across the concentration gradient. In animal models, this diffusion-enhancing mechanism of action has been observed to affect hypoxic tissue preferentially while avoiding excessive oxygen-related tissue toxicity, also known as hyperoxia.

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